The Lucian Alliance is a coalition of former smugglers and mercenaries who banded together to take advantage of the power vacuum left by the demise of the Goa'uld. The fact that they managed to form a coherent group makes them unique, but the alliance has been an uneasy one with much dissatisfaction within the ranks. The Lucian Alliance had been headed by Netan, and each division of Lucian territory was controlled by one of Netan's lieutenants, or "seconds." About 20 such seconds would oversee operations including smuggling, extortion, racketeering, and trafficking in kassa, a corn-like grain with addictive properties. The Alliance controls a sizeable armada of Goa'uld motherships and alkesh fighters, and has spies all over the galaxy, which has made them a particular threat, especially to Earth and the newly formed Jaffa government.
When the Prometheus was commandeered by Vala, she had been attempting to complete a transaction with Tenat, a smuggler allied with the Lucian Alliance. When the deal fell through, a price was put on Vala's head, and after she and SG-1 once again eluded Tenat and his partner Jup and stole their cargo ship, SG-1 also became a target of the Alliance. SG-1's first direct encounter with the Lucian Alliance occurred during the mission to investigate a kassa smuggling operation on P6G-452. SG-1 was captured by Worrel, one of Netan's operatives, but following their escape, their investigation into the theft of stargates from all over the galaxy ultimately led to a battle between the Lucian Alliance and Ba'al.
Despite the adversarial relationship between the Lucian Alliance and SG-1, Teal'c turned to Netan to propose a temporary alliance and to seek support in battling the forces of the Ori that had entered the galaxy through the supergate. Although suspicious, Netan reluctantly agreed, and he sent three motherships into the battle, but their disastrous defeat at the hands of the Ori convinced Netan that Earth had intentionally dragged the Lucian Alliance into the battle with the Ori knowing that it would deplete their forces. He angrily confronted the Odyssey and the forces of Bra'tac before escaping into hyperspace, having failed once again to defeat SG-1.
Netan and the Lucian Alliance faced difficulties from droughts and floods ravaging their kassa plantations, armies of the Ori usurping planets on which they had established trade, and losses from the strategic mistake of committing ships to cooperate in the fight against the Ori invasion. As dissent over Netan's leadership continued to mount, there were rumors of betrayal and possible mutiny among Netan's seconds. In particular, Anateo believed that Netan had failed the Alliance and that his position as leader was hanging precariously by a thread. Knowing that Anateo was considered to be his most worthy challenger, Netan ordered Anateo to capture the Odyssey, believing that he would fail and be eliminated as competition. However, Anateo lured the Odyssey into an ambush and succeeded in capturing the ship, certain that his success would ensure Netan's downfall and his own succession. In a scheme to retake the ship, Mitchell impersonated Kefflin, one of Netan's most reclusive seconds, and infiltrated the organization. As SG-1 regained control of the ship, Anateo was killed, his men captured, and Tenat and his ship were destroyed. Earth and the Lucian Alliance were officially at war, and Netan's grasp on the Alliance continued to weaken.
SG-1 continued to plague the Lucian Alliance, targeting and destroying several cargo transports carrying kassa, and in retaliation, Netan placed a bounty on their heads. During a mission to destroy a cargo transport, SG-1 was hit by what they thought was a scanning beam, but which was instead sophisticated technology that temporarily tagged them with a particularly exotic form of radiation, allowing them to be tracked. A female bounty hunter attempted to assassinate Daniel in a library, but as she pursued him into the street, she was hit and killed by a bus. On Chulak, Teal'c was wounded in an ambush by staff weapon fire, and he captured a second assassin who approached him as he slept. Carter was targeted during a presentation at a scientific conference, but was spared when the assassin fired instead at her holographic image. Several prospective bounty hunters who sought the reward for Mitchell were eliminated by Odai Ventrell, who pursued Mitchell to his high school reunion in Kansas. There he held the guests hostage, and captured Mitchell, using him as bait to bring in all of SG-1. However, SG-1 used a clever holographic diversion to capture Ventrell instead.
Netan's failure yet again to capture or kill SG-1 would only make him appear weaker to his seconds, and he again faced the threat of mutiny among his own lieutenants. Seizing the opportunity, SG-1 encouraged Ventrell to take advantage of the unrest within the Lucian Alliance and to seek his reward for capturing Netan instead. SG-1 released Ventrell, who confronted Netan and aimed his weapon, claiming his reward, and leaving the leadership of the fragile Alliance once again in doubt.